Norman Reilly Raine Biography

Norman Reilly Raine (23 June 1894 – 19 July 1971) was the creator of Tugboat Annie and a prolific screenwriter who won an Oscar for the screenplay of The Life of Emile Zola (1937).

Early years

Raine was born at Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. He began writing in 1912, when he was 17, with a job as a reporter on The Buffalo Morning Express. He stayed two years and left for service with the Canadian Expeditionary Force during World War I. He was discharged as a captain in the Royal Air Force. After the war he joined MacLean's Magazine in Toronto and became assistant editor. He died in Woodland Hills, California.

Broadway

Raine tried the Broadway stage in 1933. With Frank Butler as collaborator, he wrote Hangman's Whip, a jungle melodrama in which two well-known Hollywood actors, Montagu Love and Barton MacLane, played leading roles.

Hollywood

Raine wrote a series of Tugboat Annie stories for the Saturday Evening Post. In 1933 he wrote the screenplay for the film, in which Marie Dressler played Annie and Wallace Beery portrayed Terry, her hard-drinking husband, with whom she traded choice insults. Subsequently, Raine wrote many other screenplays, among them The Perfect Specimen, God's Country and the Woman, The Adventures of Robin Hood, Each Dawn I Die, The Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex, The Fighting 69th, Eagle Squadron, Ladies Courageous, We've Never Been Licked, Nob Hill, A Bell for Adano, Captain Kidd and Captains of the Clouds.