William Philip "Phil" Gramm (born July 8, 1942) is an American economist and politician, who has served as a Democratic Congressman (1979–1983), a Republican Congressman (1983–1985) and a Republican Senator (1985–2002) from Texas. He was a senior economic adviser to John McCain's presidential campaign from the summer of 2007 until July 18, 2008.
Gramm was born in Fort Benning, Georgia on July 8, 1942, and grew up in nearby Columbus. Soon after his birth, Gramm's father Kenneth suffered a stroke and was partially paralyzed. He died when Gramm was 14. Gramm's mother, Florence (née Scoggins), worked double shifts as a nurse to supplement the veterans disability pension.
Gramm attended public schools, graduated 1961 from Georgia Military Academy (now Woodward Academy), and graduated 1964 from the University of Georgia. He received a doctorate in economics from the University of Georgia's Terry College of Business in 1967
He then taught economics at Texas A&M University from 1967 to 1978. In addition to teaching, Gramm founded the economic consulting firm Gramm & Associates (1971–1978).