Rose Harriet Pastor Stokes (1879–1933) was an American socialist activist, writer, birth control advocate, and feminist. She was active in labor politics and women's issues, and was a founding member of the Communist Party of America in 1919. She was a figure of some public notoriety for having married millionaire socialist J.G. Phelps Stokes, a member of elite New York society and acquaintance of President Woodrow Wilson.
Rose Harriet was born in the tiny Jewish shtetl of Augustava Suvolk in the Russian Empire (later Poland) on July 18, 1879. She was the daughter of Jacob and Anna Wieslander. Her parents separated, and her mother took the family to London in 1882 when Rose was three. There Anna married Israel Pastor, who gave his surname to Rose. The family lived in the East End. Rose Pastor attended classes for a time at the Bell Lane Free School. Israel Zangwill was once a pupil there and later an instructor.
In 1891 when Pastor was twelve, her family emigrated to Cleveland, Ohio. In 1892 she found a job in a Cleveland cigar factory, where she worked as a cigar maker for the next eleven years. Her stepfather died a few years after the family arrived in Cleveland, and Pastor helped support her six siblings and mother.